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  [组图]东南亚公约组织       ★★★ 【字体:
东南亚公约组织
作者: 佚名      文章来源:本站原创     点击数:    更新时间:2011-05-11    

 

 美国于一九五四年九月,联合泰国、菲律宾、巴基斯坦、英国、法国、澳大利亚以及新西兰等国,组成了东南亚公约组织。东南亚公约是一项互助公约,规定经济合作、技术协助,和以集体行动对抗侵略或颠覆。另外一条附带的条款,将公约中所规定的保护及经济援助范围扩大到老挝、束埔寨和南越。

  此外,美国还扩大了它对亚洲、中东、非洲和拉丁美洲等地方的技术援助计划。一九五八年韩国在从美国得到十亿美元用作救济和重建工作后,生产和消费已经超过战前的水准。至于给予菲律宾大规模援助,以协助其战后复兴及清剿游击队,也同样十分成功。自一九五O年起至六O年止,美国以机械、医药、贷款及技术人员援助的国家,总共有六十余国之多。

  东南亚公约与东协无关,基本上东南亚公约是由美国主导,是围堵越南共产党的一环,因为越南沦亡而基本上丧失功能,于1977解散.

http://baike.baidu.com/view/903015.htm

 
 

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

(SEATO)

 

World Affairs, 1954-1977

Overview

The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), whose principal architect was Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, was created in 1954 to stem further communist takeover of countries in the Pacific region. SEATO also was established to legitimize the United States' presence in South Vietnam to fight the communist movement under nationalist Ho Chi Minh of North Vietnam.

SEATO emblem

Representatives from Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States, under the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, (from which SEATO was formed), pledged to defend against what it saw as an escalation of communist military aggression against democracy. Headquartered in Bangkok, Thailand, SEATO functioned by unanimous vote only, which was the ultimate cause of its dissolution in 1977.

What follows is an illustration of U.S. foreign policy in relation to SEATO during the country's involvement in Vietnam:

Cambodia - 1955

“U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and his brother, CIA Director Allen Dulles, each visited me [Cambodian King Norodom Sihanouk], and attempted to persuade me to place Cambodia under the protection of SEATO. I kindly declined the offer, preferring to adopt a neutral stance in the conflict between our neighbors and the U.S. I considered SEATO an aggressive military alliance directed against neighbors whose ideology I did not share but with whom Cambodia had no quarrel. I had made all this quite clear to John Foster, an acidy, arrogant man, but his brother soon turned up with a briefcase full of documents ‘proving’ that Cambodia was about to fall victim to ‘communist aggression’ and that the only way to save the country, the monarchy and myself was to accept the protection of SEATO. The ‘proofs’ did not coincide with my own information, and I replied to Allen Dulles as I had replied to John Foster: Cambodia wanted no part of SEATO. We would look after ourselves as neutrals and Buddhists. There was nothing for the secret service chief to do but pack up his dubious documents and leave.”

- Cambodian King Norodom Sihanouk

SEATO leaders at Manila Conference

“Operation Breakfast”

Operation Breakfast was a secret campaign proposed by Henry Kissinger, President Richard M. Nixon's assistant for National Security Affairs. Kissinger convinced the president that he should begin a bombing campaign in Cambodia where Vietcong and North Vietnamese had established logistical bases. The secret campaign spurred the Vietnamese to move deeper into Cambodia, which caused U.S. bombing to move farther into the country's interior as well. As in Laos, the U.S. dropped a huge number of bombs on civilian areas. Craig Etcheson would later write in his book, The Rise and Demise of Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia), “The fact is that the United States dropped three times the quantity of explosives on Cambodia between 1970 and 1973 than it had dropped on Japan for the duration of World War II."

Cambodia – 1975

While Cambodian king Norodom Sihanouk was on a trip abroad, his top ministers, Lon Nol and Sirik Matak, usurped control of the country and immediately began to cooperate with the United States military to expel the North Vietnamese and Vietcong presence in Cambodia.

The Khmer Rouge, under the leadership of Pol Pot and supported by a population terrorized by the U.S. bombing campaign, waged guerrilla warfare against the new government, overthrowing it in 1975.

In 1993, U.N.-administered elections led to a new constitution and the reinstatement of Norodom Sihanouk as king of Cambodia.

Off-site search results for "Southeast Asia Treaty Organization"...

The Avalon Project : Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty (Manila Pact); September 8, 1954
Governemnt Printing Office, 1957 USMARC Cataloging Record Multilateral Treaties Page Mutual Defense Treaties Southeast Asia and the Pacific 20th Century Page Avalon Home Page ...
http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/intdip/usmulti/usmu003.htm

ReliefWeb Southeast Asia Maps
... Europe] [World] NEW MAP CENTRE  Southeast Asia Regional Maps Reference Maps General Map of the Greater Mekong Subregion Jul 1999 [pdf format - external link - 256k] (UN Cartographic Section) Southeast Asia ...
http://www.reliefweb.int/mapc/asi%5Fse/

SparkNotes: World War II (1939�1945): Southeast Asia
... Guides : European : World War II (1939â�“1945) : Southeast Asia      Southeast Asia Events March 8, 1942 -  Japan takes Rangoon, Burma July  -  Japan occupies Guadalcanal August 7 -  Allies launch offensive on Guadalcanal November  -  Allies ...
http://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/ww2/section10.rhtml

 
 
 
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